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すでくにへて、さらかみを生む。かれ、生めるかみは、おほことおしをのかみ つぎいはつちこのかみを生む。[川石云伊波亦毗古二字以音下效此也。] 次にいはめのかみを生む。 次におほわけのかみを生む。 次にあめふき上男をのかみを生む。 次におほこのかみを生む。 次にかざわけおしかみを生む。[訓風云加耶訓木以音。] 次にうみの神、名はおほ綿わたみのかみを生む。 次にみなの神、名ははやあきこのかみ 次にいもはやあきめのかみを生む。[自大事忍男神至秋津比賣神并十神。] の速秋津日子・速秋津比売ふたはしらの神、かはうみりてきて、生める神の名は、あわぎのかみ。[那芸二字以音下效此。] 次にあわみのかみ。[那美二字以音下效此。] 次につらぎのかみ 次につらみのかみ 次にあめくまりのかみ。[訓分云久麻理下效此。] 次にくにくまりのかみ 次にあめちのかみ 。[自久以下五字以音下效此。] 次にくにちのかみ[自沫那芸神至国之久奢母智神并八神。] 次にかぜの神、名はこのかみを生む。[此神名以音。] 次にの神、名は久々くくちのかみを生む。[此神名以音。] 次にやまの神、名はおほやま上津みのかみを生む。 次にの神、名は鹿めのかみを生む。亦の名はつちのかみふ。[自志那都比古神至野椎并四神。] 此の大山津見神野椎神二はしらの神、やまりてきて、生める神の名は、あめづちのかみ。[訓土云豆知下效此。] 次にくにづちのかみ 次にあめぎりのかみ 次にくにぎりのかみ 次にあめくらとのかみ 次にくにくらとのかみ 次におほまとひこのかみ[訓或云麻刀比下效此。] 次におほまとひめのかみ[自天之狭土神大戸或女神并八神也。] 次に生める神の名は、とりいはくすふねのかみ。亦の名はあめのとりふねと謂ふ。 次におほめのかみを生む。[訓神名以音。] 次にはやをのかみを生む。[夜芸二字以音也。]亦の名はかがこのかみと謂ふ。亦の名はつちのかみふ。[迦具二字以音。]

大事忍男神 記伝はこの神を書紀一書に見える「事解之男」に当たるとし、「大なる事業の成り竟し」故の称え名であるとする。記伝は「忍」は「大し」でこれも美称ととるので、美称を重ねた神名として説明している。以下、その大事がこれまでの国生みの事跡を示すのか、これからの神生みを示すのかによって解釈が分かれる。集成は、「記の表現法の一つに、結論を先に示すというのがある」ので、今もこれによって解するとする。なお集成は「忍」は「押さえつける」の意で、威力あるものの美称としている。 石土毘古神石巣比売神 石土毘古神は、岩石と土の男性。住居の土台になる岩石と土の神格化。石巣比売神は、岩石と砂の女神とする説が多いが、集成は岩石(のように堅固な)住居の女神とし、「巣」を住居とする。以下に誕生する神々を家屋造営の神々として捉える見解が多いが、新編は、「国土としての島生みをうけ自然を表象する神々に続くという文脈からも、住居にかかわらせるのは適切とはいえない。むしろ自然に関する神ととるのが妥当であろう」とし、石土毘古神石巣比売神は、生みなされた島の大地形成を表象するとみられる、と説く。 大戸日別神 「戸」を処とみて居所の意と見る説、「戸」のままの意とみて家屋の門扉と見る説がある。「日」は「霊」と捉えられているが、これまでに出現した「○○日別」の「日」と共通するのか、別物と見るのか、なお検討を要するのではないか。 ○天之吹男神 「吹」は「葺く」で、屋根に茅を葺く意を持つ神とされる。『古事記』中の「吹」は気吹や風に関わって記され、借字と考えられうるのは当該のみである。 大屋毘古神 名の中心は「屋」であるが、これを屋根の意とするか家屋の意とするかで性格も変わってくる。「大殿祭祝詞」に見える屋船命は宮殿の神格化されたものと言われ、この神も同様の性質を持つのではないかと思われる。後のオホナムチの神話に木国の大屋毘古神として登場する神と、同神である説と別神であるとする説があるが、オホナムチ神話には家屋の造営という要素が必要とされたと見られるので、同神とみて問題はないものと思われる(谷口雅博「木国の大屋毘古神」『古代文学』48 、二〇〇八・三参照)。なお、『先代旧事本紀』に、スサノヲの子神である五十猛神の亦名に大屋彦神が出てくる。五十猛神は紀伊国に祀られているので、『古事記』の大屋毘古神が後に木国にいる点とも関わるが、『古事記』では五十猛神は出てこないし、大屋毘古神はイザナキとイザナミの子であるので、混合して考えるのは適切ではなかろう。 風木津別之忍男神 全註釈は、屋根が風に吹き飛ばされないように支え持つ意、つまり屋根を持ちこたえる神と解してはどうか、と説く。注釈は意味は分らないとしながらも、「あえていうなら、下に出てくる風や木の神、また綿津見神速秋津日子神の「津」をいい出すため、あるいはそれにひかれ、何となく風木津別といっただけのことかも知れぬ」という。集成は、「風に持ちこたえる男子の威力ある男」とし、家屋の耐久性について、風に対向できる威力の神格化である」とする。これらはいずれも「カザモツワケノオシヲノカミ」と訓むものであるが、注解は、「カザモ(モは甲類)クツワケ」と訓まれるべきであると説く。ここに「木」字を用いたのは、モクがモとクとに分かれるのでなく、分解不能な意味単位であることを示すためかも知れない、と述べ、「木」字を「モク」と読むべき根拠を多岐にわたり挙げる。この神名の問題は、神名に付された訓注に、「訓風云加耶訓木以音」とある点にある。「訓木以音」というのは他に例のない形であり、「木」を訓ずるのに「音」によるという言い方は、訓というもののありかたについての見直しを計る必要性も感じさせる(嵐義人「「訓云」についての一考察―古事記訓読への疑―」『國學院雑誌』 113 ―1、二〇一二・一参照)。西條勉は、「木」の意味を含み持ちつつ、読み方はあくまでも音であることを示す、即ち漢字の音と訓とを両用したことによる注かとする。(『古事記の文字法』笠間書院一九九八・六) ○海神名綿津見神 ワタは海、ツは助詞、ミは神霊。ヤマツミと対をなす。 ○水戸神 ミナトは水の門で水流の出入りするところ。『古事記』では神名の場合「水戸」と記し、他は「紀国男水門」(神武記)等、「水門」と記している。「速吸門」(神武記)の例から見れば、「門」と「戸」ではややニュアンスが異なるように思われる。「戸」については、黄泉国神話のところで改めて用例を挙げて検討する。
○速秋津日子・速秋津比売神 ハヤは速さの意の美称で、『古事記』の「ハヤスサノヲ」や「大祓祝詞」の「ハヤサスラヒメ」等に見える。「水戸神」である故に水流の速さに関わる美称であろう。「秋」は「明き」とも「開き」とも。意味するところは明確ではない。流水の解放と見るもの(全書など)や、穢れを清める(評釈など)とするものなどがある。
○持別而生 一方が河神。一方が海神としてそれぞれ分担して、ということだが、「生む」の主語について、度会延佳は速秋津日子・速秋津比売二神と考え、それに対して記伝ではすべて伊耶那岐・伊耶那美二神と考えた。現在も、後の神生みの総数「三十五神」の問題(後述)と絡んで見解が分かれている。集成は、速秋津日子・速秋津比売二神は男女神ではあるけれども結婚したとは述べていない故にこの神々は「生みたまへる」の主語にはなりえないと主張し、この神々はそれぞれの持場を区別して、岐・美二神が「神生み」をしやすいように管理したのであると説く。従って神生みの条で生まれた神々は、すべて岐・美二神の所生であるとする。一方注解は、まずこれをモチワケテと訓むべきとし、「持別而生」の主格は岐美二神ではなく、それぞれの持場を分担した上で相かかわって神々を「派生していった」のだと解釈する。
沫那芸神沫那美神 水面に立つ泡の男女神。神名の語構成については、泡+ナ+「芸(男)」「美(女)」ととる説と、泡+「凪」「波」ととる説とに分かれる。
頬那芸神頬那美神 頬は水面を暗示するという見方はほぼ共通するが、ナギ・ナミについては前項の「沫那芸神沫那美神」同様、性別を表すとする説と、「凪」「波」ととる説とに分かれる。集成は、頬那芸を「岐・美二神の神生みにおいて、河口(陸地の側)で生んだ神」、頬那美を「岐・美二神の神生みにおいて、河口(海面の側)で生んだ神」とするが、神名からそのようにはとれない。 天之水分神国之水分神 記伝以来、クマリは分配の意で解釈されている。延喜式神名帳には、大和国吉野郡吉野、宇陀郡宇太、山辺郡都祁、葛上郡葛木等に、それぞれ水分神社があり、奈良盆地に水を供給する要地、河川の源流の山において水分神が祀られている。 ○自沫那芸神国之久比奢母智神并八神 以上八神はすべて水に関係する神。水分神は祈年祭、久比奢母智神は鎮火祭、また速秋津比売神は大祓の各祝詞にそれぞれの名が見える。 ○風神志那都比古神 記伝は、シナガは「息長」であるとするが、全註釈は、オキがシになることはないとし、書紀の用字「級長津彦命」を参考に、風の意の「シ」+「ナ(長)」ととる。新版は、「な」は穴か、という。「風」は序文二例、上巻八例、中巻二例。「海原之魚、不問大小、悉負御船而渡。爾、順風大起御船従浪」(中巻)、「振風比礼・切風比礼」(中巻)などのように航海と関わる例がみえる。また、「天若日子之妻、下照比売之哭声、与風響到天」(上巻)という記述によれば、風が天まで届くと考えられていた可能性が『古事記』の内部からも窺える。 ○木神久々能智神 記伝にククは「クキ(茎)」。一方『日本書紀』大系頭注は、「ククは木木(キキ)の古形」とする。現状ではこの二説が対立している。「木木」説をとるものは、草花ならばともかくとして、樹木に「茎」は適当ではないという理由を挙げる(注釈)。それに対し、全註釈は、『万葉集』(巻十四・三四〇六、三四四四)に「茎」を「クク」で表した例があるところから、「茎」説を取るが、全註釈自身も述べているように用例は二例ともに東歌である点にやはり問題が残る。大殿祭の祝詞に見える「屋船久久遅命」には「是は木の霊也」とある点から見ても、「木木」説の方が妥当か。 ○山神名大山津見神 海神、綿津見神と対応する神名。ワタツミは前述。スサノヲの八岐大蛇大事神話に登場するオオヤマツミ、ニニギの降臨の祭に登場するオオヤマツミとは別神とする説もあるが(全註釈)、別神とする根拠は特に見当たらない。それよりも、ニニギの降臨以降、山の神の娘、海の神の娘との婚姻が語られて山海の神の力が天神系譜に取り込まれて天皇へと繋がる、その山神海神がここで伊耶那岐・伊耶那美の子神に位置づけられていることの意味を問うべきであろう。いずれ考えてみたい。 ○野神鹿屋野比売神 カヤの生えた野の神格化。
野椎神 野ツ霊で、野の神霊の意。カヤ(草)と野とは関連性が強い。『日本書紀』では「草祖」と言っている。
○自志那都比古神至野椎并四神 以上四神は、人間生活に関係の深い風、木、山、野の神々。
天之狭霧神国之狭霧神 記伝にサギリは「坂の限り」の意とし、境界の神とする。全註釈は、狭は接頭語で、「霧」は字義通りであろうとする。山野に分担をして神を出現したとするならば、やはり「霧」であろう。講義は、霧は山にも野にも生ずるものであり、天と地とに渡ると述べる。「狭霧」は記中に全九例。当該と「天狭霧神」(大国主系譜)の他は、アマテラスとスサノヲのうけひ場面にのみ見える。 天之闇戸神国之闇戸神 記伝に、戸は処、闇は谷のこととする。旧全集に、クラは闇、ドは所の意で、山にはさまれた闇い所、つまり谷の意。以上の山・野・土・霧・谷という順序は、古代人の日常体験に基づく思想が働いている、とする。全註釈は、「闇」はここでは文字通りに「闇い」意であるが、同時に「谷」の意もあって二重になっているとする。『古事記』で「闇」の字は闇淤加美神闇御津羽神闇山津見神・沙本之大闇見戸売(開化記)のように神名、人名で用いられ、また「高天原皆暗、葦原中国悉闇」「因吾隠坐而、以為天原自闇、亦葦原中国皆闇矣」と、天照大御神の石屋戸隠りの段に見える(全十例)。 大戸或子神大戸或女神 「或」は「惑」の通用字。記伝に、「土より霧の発、その霧によりて闇く、闇きによりて惑ふ」という意でこの神の名があるのだろうとする。野に霧がかかって迷うことを表現する。新版は、山の神と野の神が生んだ諸神の系列は、地上に霧がかかり暗い峡谷に乱気流発生の神格化であろうとする。『古事記』中で「大戸」のつく神名は二例。「大戸日別神」(上巻・神生み①の箇所)、「大戸比売神」(上巻・大年神の系譜箇所)。後者の方は、「大戸比売神。此者諸人以拝伽神者也。」とあり、「伽」は「へ」なので「戸」も「へ」と訓める。「或」字は『古事記』に十二例みえ、「あるいは」の意で用いられる他には、「於是、零大氷雨、打或倭建命」(景行記)とある。「或」は「惑」と音義通用する字であり(『集韻』)、「惑う」意で「或」字を用いるのは現伝諸本の原型が残存したと捉えるとの指摘がある(神道)。
○訓或云麻刀比下效此 注解は、「「惑」字は、万葉集でも、マトフ・マトハスの表記に用いられた例がかなり見出だされ、この字の常用的な訓であったと思われる。(中略)問題の訓注は「或」を他動詞マトハシでなく、自動詞マトヒで訓めという指示であると理解するのが最も適切であると思われる。その上の「戸」が何を表すかによって、この神名の名義が変わって来るが、いずれにせよ、神は自身が迷うものであるより、人間を迷わすものであるという方が、一般に考えやすい。従って、神名中の「或」はマトハシと訓まれる危険性が高い。そこに、この「或」をマトヒと訓めという訓注を記した意味があったと思われる。」と述べている。
○鳥之石楠舩神・天鳥舩 船の神格化。鳥の石楠船は、鳥のように軽快で速力がはやく、石のように堅固な楠の船の義。鳥と舟との関係については、天と海とが一続きに考えられており、天空を飛ぶ鳥と、海を行く舟とが結びつけられていると言われる。「播磨国風土記逸文」明石駅家の記事では巨木で作った船に「速鳥」という名が付いている。『万葉集』には「天の海に雲の波立ち月の船星の林に漕ぎ隠る見ゆ」と、天空と海とを重ね合わせて歌われた例もある。世界的に、太陽の乗り物として舟が観相されていたように、月も舟に乗って移動すると見られていたという(松前健『日本神話の新研究』桜楓社一九六〇・八)。『日本書紀』神代上五段本書では、蛭児を放ち棄てる際に天磐䗕樟船に乗せたとある。また同じ五段の一書二では、蛭児、素戔嗚尊の次に鳥磐䗕樟船を生み、この船に蛭児を載せたとする。天鳥舩は紀には見えない。『古事記』では後に建御雷神が葦原中国に派遣される際に、天鳥舩とともに降っている。 ○大冝都比売神 粟国の又の名に既にオホゲツヒメの名が出ていた。その神名とは別個のものとして見るべきであろう。後の五穀の起源条で、須佐之男に殺される女神として登場しているオホゲツヒメは、同神として考えるべきか。 火之夜芸速男神  ヤギは「焼き」、ハヤは火勢の速く 盛んなことか。火の燃焼力の速く盛んな男神(集成など)。船―食物―火の順序は船で食物(穀類や飲料水)を運び、それを火で煮炊きするという連想によるか(旧全集)。
火之炫毘古神 名義は「火の、明るく輝く男性」。「炫」は「明るく輝く」意。今日「かがやく」というが、室町時代までは「かかやく」。『出雲国風土記』に「金弓もちて射給ふ時に、光かかやきき。故、加加といふ」(島根郡加賀郷の条)とある。この「かか」は「かく」とも言った。「天の若日子の反逆」の条の「かく矢」を金属の矢で輝く矢ととり、垂仁天皇の段の「多遅麻毛理」の条に「ときじくのかくの木の実」を、橘の実の黄金に輝く意ととって同じ語とする説もあるが、明らかではない。
火之迦具土神 記伝に、「迦具は赫と云意」で、カガ、カゲ、カグ全て同言とする。全註釈は、それでは前項のカガビコと同じ意になってしまうという点、「輝く」という意でカグという例が上代には見当たらないという点から否定する。そしてカグヤ姫のカグヤについて触れ、このカグはカガヤクの意ではなくて芳しいの意であり、カグツチのカグもその意でとる。集成は、「かが・かぎ・かぐ・かげ」は「光(火)がほのかにちらちらと揺れる(燃える)」意とし、「火之迦具土の神」の「かぐ」は「火之」とあるから、「火の、ちらちらと燃える」意であると説く。前項の「火之炫毗古」は照明の霊能であり、「火之迦具土」は焼焦の霊能に基づく命名であると区別する。

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既生國竟更生神①生神名大事忍男神 次生石土毗②神[川石云伊波亦毗③二字以音下效此也] 次生石巣比賣神 次生大戸日別神 次生天之④男神 次生大屋毗古神 次生風木津別之忍男神[訓風⑤加耶訓木以音] 次生海神名綿津見神 次生水戸神名速秋津日子神 次妹速秋津比賣神⑥[自大事忍男神至秋津比賣神并十神] 此速秋津日子速秋津比賣二神囙⑦海持別而生神名沫那藝神[那藝二字以音下效此] 沫那美神[那美二字以音下效此] 次頬那藝神 頬那美神 天之水分神[訓分云久麻理下效此] 次國之水分神 次天之久比⑧母智神[自久以下五字以音下效此] 次國之久比奢母智神[自沫那藝神至國之久比奢母智神并八神] 次生風神名志那都⑨古神[此神名以音] 次生木神名久々能智神[此神名以音] 次生山神名大山津見神 次生野神名⑪鹿屋野比賣神亦名謂野⑫神[自志那都比古神至野⑬并四神] 大山津見神野椎神二神囙山野持別而生神名天之⑭土神[訓土云豆知下效此] 次國之⑮土神 次天之⑯霧神 次國之⑰霧神 天之闇戸神 次⑱國之闇戸神 大戸或子神[訓或云麻刀比下效此] 大戸或女神[自天之⑲狭土神至大戸或女神并八神也] 次生神名鳥之石⑳舩神亦名謂天鳥舩 次生大冝都比賣神[訓神名以音] 次生火之夜藝速男神[夜藝二字以音也]亦名謂火之炫毗古神亦名謂火之迦具土神[迦具二字以音] 【校異】
①  真「䚺」。道果本以下による。
②  真「吉」。道果本以下による。
③  真「吉。道果本以下による。
④  真「湏」。道果本以下による。 ⑤  真 ナシ。道・祥・春による。兼以下の卜部系諸本および寛「云耶」。
⑥  真 大書で「自津比賣神并十神大事忍男神至秋」。道・祥・春以下による。兼・前・曼「自大事忍男神至秋津比賣神并十此神」、猪「此」左傍に「イ本无」朱書。寛・延・訓「自大事忍男神至秋津比賣神并十神」、校「自大事忍男神至速秋津比賣神并十神」。
⑦  真「阿」。道果本以下による。
⑧  真「大者」。道果本以下による。
⑨  真「法」。道果本以下による。
⑩  真 ナシ。◯符右傍書「次生木神名久々能智神[此神名以音]」。
⑪  真「麻」。道・祥・春による。兼以下の卜部系諸本および寛「麻鹿」。
⑫  真「推」。道「桘」、祥・春「槌」。兼・前「推」。曼以下「椎」。猪左傍書「日本記作槌」。
⑬  真「推」。道「桘」、祥・春「槌」。兼・前「推」。曼以下「椎」。
⑭  真「使」。道果本以下による。
⑮  真「侠」。道果本以下による。
⑯  真「侠」。道果本以下による。
⑰  真「侠」。道果本以下による。
⑱  真 ナシ。道果本以下「國之闇戸神次」。道果本以下による。
⑲  真「侠古」。道果本以下による。
⑳  真「桶」。道果本以下による。

二神はすべて国生みを終えて、さらに神をお生みになった。そこでお生みになった神は、以下の神々を生む大事業の偉大さの象徴としての、名は大事忍男神 次に土石の神格化の石土毗古神をお生みになった。 次に石や砂の神石巣比売神をお生みになり、 次に住居の出入り口の神大戸日別をお生みになり、 次に天井を葺く意の天之吹男神をお生みになり、 次に家屋の神大屋毗古神をお生みになった。 次に風の神風木津別之忍男神をお生みになり、 次に海の神名は綿津見神をお生みになり、 次に水の出入り口の神速秋津日子神 ついで女神速秋津比売神をお生みになった。大事忍男神から秋津比売神まで合わせて十神である。 この速秋津日子・速秋津比売の神の二柱の神が河と海とを分担して生んだ水の状態を表す神の名は沫那芸神 次に沫那美神 次に頰那芸神、 次に頰那美神、 次に水の分配を表す天之水分神 次に国之水分神 水汲みに関わる天之久比奢母智神 次に国之久比奢母智神沫那芸神から国之久比奢母智神まで合わせて八神。 伊耶那岐・伊耶那美の二神は、次に風の神、名は志那都比古神をお生みになり、 次に木の神、名は久々能智神をお生みになり、 次に山の神、名は大山津見神をお生みになり、 次に野の神、名は鹿屋野比売神をお生みになった。別名を野椎神という。志那都比古神から野椎神まで合わせて四神。 この大山津見神野椎神の二柱の神が、山と野とを分担して生んだ山野の情況を表す神の名は、天之狭土神 次に国之狭土神 次に天之狭霧神 次に国之狭霧神 次に天之闇戸神 次に国之闇戸神 次に大戸或子神 次に大戸或女神天之狭土神から大戸或女神まで合わせて八神である。 伊耶那岐・伊耶那美の二神が、次にお生みになった神の名は鳥之石楠船神、別名は天鳥船という。 次に大冝都比売神をお生みになり、 次に火之夜芸速男神をお生みになった。この神の別名は火之炫毗古神といい、もう一つの別名は火之迦具土神という。

Once they had finished giving birth to the land, Izanaki and Izanami began to give birth to deities. The name of the [first] deity they bore is Ōkoto oshio no kami 大事忍男神. Next they bore Iwatsuchibiko no kami 石土毗古神. Next they bore Iwasuhime no kami 石巣比売神. Next they bore Ōtohiwake no kami 大戸日別神. Next they bore Ame no fukio no kami 天之吹男神. Next they bore Ōyabiko no kami 大屋毗古神. Next they bore Kazamotsuwake no oshio no kami 風木津別之忍男神. Then they gave birth to the sea deity, whose name is Ōwatatsumi no kami 大綿津見神. Next they bore the deity of the inlets, whose name is Haya akitsuhiko no kami 速秋津日子神, and his sister-spouse Haya akitsuhime no kami 速秋津比賣神. Note: From Ōkoto oshio no kami to [Haya] Akitsuhime no kami, there are ten deities altogether. These two deities, Haya akitsuhiko no kami and Haya akitsuhime no kami, divided between themselves charge of the rivers and the seas. The names of the deities [they] bore are Awanagi no kami 沫那芸神; next, Awanami no kami 沫那美神; next, Tsuranagi no kami 頬那芸神; next, Tsuranami no kami 頬那美神; next, Ame no mikumari no kami 天之水分神; next, Kuni no mikumari no kami 国之水分神; next, Ame no kuhizamochi no kami 天之久比奢母智神; next, Kuni no kuhizamochi no kami 国之久比奢母智神.Note: From Awanagi no kami to Kuni no kuhizamochi no kami, there are eight deities altogether. Next [Izanaki and Izanami] bore the deity of the wind, whose name is Shinatsuhiko no kami 志那都比古神. Then they gave birth to the deity of the trees, whose name is Kukunochi no kami 久々能智神. Next they bore the deity of the mountains, whose name is Ōyamatsumi no kami 大山津見神. Next they bore the deity of the plains, whose name is Kayanohime no kami 鹿屋野比売神. This deity's other name is Notsuchi no kami 野椎神.Note: From Shinatsuhiko no kami to Notsuchi [no kami], there are four deities altogether. These two deities, Ōyamatsumi no kami and Notsuchi no kami, divided between themselves charge of the mountains and the plains. The names of the deities [they] bore are Ame no sazuchi no kami 天之狭土神; next Kuni no sazuchi no kami 国之狭土神; next, Ame no sagiri no kami 天之狭霧神; next, Kuni no sagiri no kami 国之狭霧神; next, Ame no kurato no kami 天之闇戸神; next, Kuni no kurato no kami 国之闇戸神; next, Ōtomatoiko no kami 大戸或子神; next, Ōtomatoime no kami 大戸或女神.Note: From Ame no sazuchi no kami to Ōtomatoime no kami, there are eight deities altogether. Next [Izanaki and Izanami] gave birth to a deity whose name is Tori no iwakusufune no kami 鳥之石楠舩神. This deity's other name is Ama no torifune 天鳥舩. Next they bore Ōgetsuhime no kami 大冝都比売神. Next they bore Hi no yagihayao no kami 火之夜芸速男神. This deity's other name is Hi no kakabiko no kami 火之炫毗古神. Yet another name is Hi no kagutsuchi no kami 火之迦具土神.

Ōkoto oshio no kami 大事忍男神  The name of this deity (“male deity of great accomplishment”) serves to signify the greatness of Izanaki and Izanami's deed in giving birth to the deities listed subsequently. Motoori Norinaga holds that this deity corresponds to the deity Yomotsu kototoke no o 泉津事解之男, who appears in one of the Nihon shoki variants, and postulates that the name alludes to “the completion of a great deed.” Since Norinaga takes the morpheme oshi 忍 to be a eulogistic element equivalent to ōshi 大 (“great”), he sees this theonym as combining eulogizing terms.(1) Commentators differ on whether the “great deed” refers to the already complete “birth of the land” or the “birth of the deities” taken up in what follows. Nishimiya Kazutami argues that “one typical feature of the Kojiki's mode of expression is to present the conclusion first,” and he consequently understands the “great deed” as the upcoming “birth of the deities.” He also postulates that the morpheme oshi 忍 means osaetsukeru 押さえつける (“to press down,” “to hold down”) and takes it to be an eulogistic element conveying a powerful nature.(2) Iwatsuchibiko no kami 石土毗古神 and Iwasuhime no kami 石巣比売神  The first name means “man of rocks and soil.” It represents a deification of the stones and soil that serve as the foundation for a house. Many authors consider the second name to be that of a female deity of sand and rocks, but Nishimiya Kazutami understands it as a deity of stone houses (or of houses strong as rocks). He infers this “dwelling” interpretation from the morpheme su 巣 (“nest”).(3) Many commentators consider the deities mentioned below to be divinities of house construction. Yamaguchi Yoshinori and Kōnoshi Takamitsu, however, argue that “in a context where deities representing natural phenomena are born subsequent to the ‘birth of the land’ in the form of islands, it is not appropriate to associate the deities that follow with houses or dwellings. It is more reasonable to consider them to be deities related to the natural environment.”(4) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi thus take these two deities to signify the formation of the actual land of the islands whose birth was described in the previous chapter. Ōtohiwake no kami 大戸日別神  Some commentators consider the element to 戸 to mean “place” and thus to indicate a dwelling. Others interpret it according to the meaning of the graph as “door” and take it to indicate “the gate to a house.” The character hi 日 is generally held to be equivalent to hi 霊 (“spirit”). Further research is needed, however, to clarify whether the usage here should be interpreted to be the same as in the names “so-and-so-hiwake” 〇〇日別 seen in the preceding chapter or as something different. Ame no fukio no kami 天之吹男神  The graph 吹 (fuku) is generally seen as standing in for the verb fuku 葺く (“to thatch”), which leads to the interpretation that the deity named here is associated with the thatching of roofs with kaya 茅 grass (Imperata cylindrica). Elsewhere in the Kojiki, however, the graph 吹 always conveys an association with “breath” or “wind,” and this is the only case in which it could be interpreted as a loan graph (shakuji 借字) with a different signification. Ōyabiko no kami 大屋毘古神  The graph ya 屋 constitutes the core element of this name, but interpretation of the deity's character varies depending on whether ya is taken to mean “roof” (yane 屋根) or “house” (kaoku 家屋). The deity Yafune no mikoto 屋船命 who appears in the Ōtonohogai 大殿祭 norito liturgy for praying for the safety of the palace is said to be a deification of the imperial palace, and Ōyabiko no kami may be of a similar nature. Opinions diverge as to whether this deity is the same as the one of the same name from the land of Ki 木国 who subsequently appears in the story of Ōnamuchi.(5) Taniguchi Masahiro 谷口雅博 holds that as house construction is an essential element of the story of Ōnamuchi, the two Ōyabiko no kami can be identified as the same.(6)
 Sendai kuji hongi 先代旧事本紀 (ninth century) gives the name Ōyabiko no kami 大屋彦神 as an alternative name of the deity Isotakeru 五十猛, an offspring of Susanoo. Isotakeru was indeed enshrined in Ki 紀伊 Province, and a connection might be seen in that subsequently in the Kojiki an Ōyabiko no kami is described as associated with the land of Ki. However, Isotakeru does not appear in the Kojiki, and the Ōyabiko no kami who figures in the present passage is described as an offspring of Izanaki and Izanami, so one probably should not mix the two narratives and think of Isotakeru and Ōyabiko no kami as the same.
Kazamotsuwake no oshio no kami 風木津別之忍男神  Kurano Kenji proposes interpreting this name as referring to holding a roof firm in order to prevent it from being blown away by the wind―in other words, as the name of a deity who supports roof structures.(7) Saigō Nobutsuna states that he does not really understand the meaning of this name, but continues, “If I were to venture an opinion, the name may be linked to that of the deities of the wind (kaze 風) and trees (ki 木) that are mentioned below. Or it may simply be meant to introduce (or echo) the particle tsu, which will appear in the names of the next deities, Ōwatatsumi no kami and Haya akitsuhiko no kami.”(8) Nishimiya Kazutami takes it to indicate “a man so full of male vigor as to hold out against the wind.” He thus sees it as a deification of the power to withstand the wind that secures a house's durability.(9)
 All these commentators read this name as Kazamotsuwake no oshio no kami, but Kōnoshi Takamitsu and Yamaguchi Yoshinori hold that it should be read as Kazamokutsuwake. They state further that use of the graph 木 (with the on reading moku) may be intended to indicate that moku should be read as a single lexical unit that cannot be split into mo and ku. They provide a variety of evidence to show that this graph should be read as moku.(10) The problems surrounding this deity name arise from the reading gloss that accompanies it, namely “Read 風 as kaza; read 木 according to its on 音 [pronunciation]” (訓風云加耶訓木以音). This is the only instance in the Kojiki of a gloss directing that the graph ki (tree) be read according to its on (Chinese style) pronunciation (moku). The instruction suggests a need to reconsider the meaning of the term 訓 (“read as,” [usually interpreted to mean “read according to the Japanese pronunciation”]).(11) Saijō Tsutomu 西條勉 holds that this gloss may have been intended to indicate that the meaning “tree” of the graph 木 should be retained although the reading of it here should be purely phonetic. That is, it indicates that the character should be simultaneously interpreted according to its phonetic value and its meaning.(12)
“The sea deity, whose name is Ōwatatsumi no kami” 海神名大綿津見神  The morpheme wata means “sea,” tsu is a possessive particle, mi conveys the meaning of “divine spirit.” This deity is a counterpart to the mountain deity Yamatsumi (see item “The deity of the mountains, whose name is Ōyamatsumi no kami”). “Deity of the inlets” (minato no kami 水戸神)  Minato conveys the sense of a portal where water flows in and out. The Kojiki transcribes minato in deity names as 水戸, but elsewhere, as in the toponym Onominato 男水門 in the land of Kii, it is rendered as 水門.(13) Judging from the transcription of the word hayasui no to 速吸門 (a strait with strong tidal currents), there seems to be a slight difference in nuance in use of the graphs 門 (port, gateway) and 戸 (door, shutter).(14) We will take up the implications of 戸 more fully below, in our analysis of the Yomi no kuni 黄泉国 episode.
Haya akitsuhiko no kami 速秋津日子神 and Haya akitsuhime no kami 速秋津比賣神  Haya is a eulogistic element that conveys swiftness. It can be found in the names of other deities such as Haya susanoo in the Kojiki, or Haya surahime in the Ōharae 大祓 great purification norito. Since Haya akitsuhiko and Haya akitsuhime are described as “deities of the inlets,” this eulogistic element is presumably intended to allude to the speed of the current. The morpheme aki 秋 may mean” bright” (aki 明き) or the act of opening (aki 開き), but this remains uncertain. Kanda Hideo and Ōta Yoshimaro see it as the release of flowing water,(15) whereas Nakajima Etsuji and others hold it to refer to the washing away of pollution.(16)
“Divided between themselves charge ... [and] bore” (mochiwakite umeru 持別而生)  This phrase means that the two deities divided responsibility between themselves, one as the deity of the rivers, and the other, as the deity of the sea. The Edo scholar Watarai Nobuyoshi 度会延佳 took the subject of the verb umu 生 (“give birth”) to be Haya akitsuhiko and Haya akitsuhime.(17) In contrast, Motoori Norinaga held that Izanaki and Izanami gave birth to all the deities mentioned in this passage.(18)
 Even today, opinions differ, related to the issue of the later reference to Izanaki and Izanami having given birth to thirty-five deities (see below). Nishimiya Kazutami argues that Haya akitsuhiko and Haya akitsuhime are certainly a male and a female deity, but, as nowhere is it stated that they entered into conjugal union, they cannot be the subject of the verb umitamaeru (“give birth”). According to Nishimiya, by dividing between themselves the management of their respective realms, Haya akitsuhiko and Haya akitsuhime facilitated Izanaki and Izanami continuing to give birth to the deities. He thus postulates that all the deities born in the “Giving Birth to the Deities” episode were the offspring of Izanaki and Izanami.(19) In contrast, Kōnoshi Takamitsu first argues that 持別而 should be read mochiwakete rather than mochiwakite. On this basis he asserts that Izanaki and Izanami are not the subject of the full phrase 持別而生. Rather, having taken charge of their respective realms, Haya akitsuhiko and Haya akitsuhime jointly produced the following deities as their offshoots (hasei shite itta 派生していった).(20)
Awanagi no kami 沫那芸神 and Awanami no kami 沫那美神  These are a male and a female deity of the spume forming on the surface of water. Along with the two following deities (Tsuranagi no kami and Tsuranami no kami), the names of these deities convey aspects of water. Two divergent theories exist about the morphology of these deity names. The first sees them as having a ternary structure consisting of the elements awa 泡 (“spume”) + the particle na + the gender suffixes gi (“man”) / mi (“woman”). The second postulates a binary structure of awa 泡 + nagi 凪 (“calm sea”) / nami 波 (“wave”).
Tsuranagi no kami 頬那芸神 and Tsuranami no kami 頬那美神  Almost all commentators consider the morpheme tsura (“face”) to allude to a water surface. As with the preceding Awanagi no kami and Awanami no kami, opinions diverge regarding nagi and nami. Some interpret these as gender marks and others as meaning “calm sea” (nagi) or “wave” (nami). Nishimiya Kazutami argues that “in the context of Izanaki and Izanami giving birth to the deities, Tsuranagi was born on the land side of a river mouth and Tsuranami on the water side.”(21) Such a conclusion cannot be derived from the deity names themselves, however. Ame no mikumari no kami 天之水分神 and Kuni no mikumari no kami 国之水分神  From Motoori Norinaga on the element kumari has been interpreted as meaning “distribution” (kubari).(22) The Engi shiki jinmyōchō 延喜式神名帳 lists many examples of Mikumari shrines.(23) For Yamato Province, for instance it lists such shrines as located in Yoshino 吉野 in Yoshino district, Uda 宇太 in Uda 宇陀 district, Tsuge 都祁 in Yamanobe 山辺 district, and Katsuraki 葛木 in Katsurakinokami 葛上 district. They are located at important points for supplying water to the Nara basin, such as the sources of rivers in the surrounding mountains, and each enshrines the water deity Mikumari no kami. Ame no kuhizamochi no kami 天之久比奢母智神 and Kuni no kuhizamochi no kami 国之久比奢母智神  Norinaga posits that kuhizamochi is a contraction of kumi hisago mochi 汲匏持 (“to draw [water],” “gourd,” and “to carry”).(24) Yamada Yoshio holds that the deity Mikumari no kami causes water to spring forth and that these deities draw it to suitable spots, making it reach everywhere.(25) Saigō Nobutsuna takes mochi to be an honorific title similar to muchi / mochi in the name of the deity Ōnamuchi / Ōnamochi.(26) Nishimiya Kazutami understands hiza not as a gourd (hisago) but a ladle (hishaku 柄杓).(27) “From Awanagi no kami to Kuni no kuhizamochi no kami, there are eight deities altogether” 自沫那芸神至国之久比奢母智神并八神  The eight deities named in this passage are all related to water. The names of Mikumari no kami, Kuhizamochi no kami, and Haya akitsuhime no kami appear respectively in the norito for the rites to pray for a good crop (Kinensai) and protection from fire (Chinkasai 鎮火祭) and the norito for the great purification rites (Ōharae). “The wind deity, whose name is Shinatsuhiko no kami” 風神志那都比古神  Norinaga suggests that the element shina may be equated with okinaga 息長 (“long breath”).(28) Kurano Kenji, on the other hand, argues that oki cannot become shi. Instead, taking as reference the Nihon shoki transcription of this name as 級長津彦命, Kurano posits that shina combines the element shi meaning “wind” with na (naga 長) meaning “long.”(29) Nakamura Hirotoshi holds that the element na means “hole” (ana 穴).(30) The graph 風 (“wind”) occurs two times in the Kojiki preface, eight times in the first volume, and two times in the second. Some of these examples associate the wind with sea travel.(31) Another instance indicates that the wind may have been believed to reach to the heavens.(32) “The deity of the trees, whose name is Kukunochi no kami” 木神久々能智神  Norinaga holds that kuku has the same meaning as kuki 茎 (“stalk”).(33) Sakamoto Tarō 坂本太郎 and Ienaga Saburō 家永三郎, on the other hand, hypothesize that kuku is an ancient form of kiki 木木 (“trees”).(34) These two interpretations remain in competition with each other today. Saigō Nobutsuna, who adopts the “trees” theory, argues that “stalk” might be used in reference to grass and flowers, but that it cannot be applied to trees.(35) By contrast, Kurano Kenji seconds the “stalk” theory, noting that in poems 3406 and 3444 of the Man'yōshū, the graph 茎 (“stalk”) is phonetically transcribed as kuku. As he admits, however, a problem remains because these two poems belong to a particular type, the azuma uta 東歌, or “songs from the east.”(36) The norito for the Ōtonohogai rite to pray for the protection of the palace includes an explanatory note of the deity name Yafune kukunochi no mikoto 屋船久久遅命 that states “this [deity] is the spirit of the trees.” Judging from these points, the “trees” interpretation seems more plausible. “The deity of the mountains, whose name is Ōyamatsumi no kami” 山神名大山津見神  This name is homologous to that of the deity of the sea, Ōwatatsumi no kami. For watatsumi, see item "The sea deity,whose name is Ōwatatsumi no kami" above. A deity with the name Ōyamatsumi appears in two subsequent myths of the Kojiki. Some commentators such as Kurano Kenji hold that the deity described in this passage is different from both the Ōyamatsumi deity who appears in the legend of Susanoo slaying an immense serpent with eight tails and eight heads (Yamata no orochi 八岐大蛇) and the Ōyamatsumi deity who figures in the account of the descent of Ninigi.(37) However, there is no clear evidence to support such a conclusion. Following Ninigi's descent to earth the power of the deities of the mountains and seas is incorporated into the lineage of the heavenly deities and linked to the emperors through the marriage of Ninigi and his descendants to the daughters of the mountain and sea deities. We thus should explore in that context the implications of the presentation here of the mountain and sea deities as the offspring of Izanaki and Izanami. “The deity of the fields, Kayanohime no kami” 野神鹿屋野比売神  This deity is the deification of a plain where kaya (reeds used for thatching) grows.
Notsuchi no kami 野椎神  The name of this deity means the spirit of the fields. This deity has a strong relationship with both kaya (grasses) and the fields. In the Nihon shoki it is referred to as Kusanooya 草祖 (“the ancestor of the grass”).(38)
“From Shinatsuhiko no kami to Notsuchi [no kami], there are four deities altogether” 自志那都比古神至野椎并四神  The four deities mentioned above represent elements closely related to human life―wind, trees, mountains, and plains.
“These two deities, Ōyamatsumi no kami and Notsuchi no kami” 此大山津見神至野椎神二神  The second deity is identified here not by the main name given above, Kayanohime no kami, but the alternative name of Notsuchi no kami. Norinaga notes that use of the alternative name for subsequent references to a deity is a common feature of the Kojiki.(39) Ame no sagiri no kami 天之狭霧神 and Kuni no sagiri no kami 国之狭霧神  Norinaga takes sagiri to mean “the end of a slope” (saka no kagiri 坂の限り), and he interprets these deities as border deities.(40) Kurano Kenji holds that sa 狭 is a prefix and that kiri 霧 should be understood according to the graph's meaning of “fog,” “mist.”(41) If these deities are to be understood as having been produced through a division of charge over the fields and mountains, “fog” seems the most plausible interpretation. Yamada Yoshio points out that fog arises from both fields and mountains and extends from heaven to earth.(42) The character combination 狭霧 occurs a total of nine times in the Kojiki. Apart from here and in the deity name Ame no sagiri no kami 天狭霧神 (in the lineage descended from Ōkuninushi),(43) it figures as the “misty spray” produced in the contest of oaths (ukei) between Amaterasu and Susanoo.(44) Ame no kurato no kami 天之闇戸神 and Kuni no kurato no kami 国之闇戸神  Norinaga takes the morpheme to 戸 as “place” (tokoro 処) and kura 闇 to mean “valley” (tani 谷).(45) Ogihara Asao holds kura to mean “dark” (kurai 闇い) and to 戸 to be “place”; he interprets the combination as “a dark place between the mountains,” namely a valley. He argues as well that the sequence “mountain→field→earth→fog→valley” represented by the deities in this passage reflects an outlook rooted in the everyday life of the people of antiquity.(46) Kurano Kenji argues that the character 闇 here expresses the graph's innate meaning of “dark,” but at the same time conveys the meaning valley; it thus carries a double significance.(47)
 The character 闇 occurs a total of ten times in the Kojiki. It appears in the deity names Kura okami no kami 闇淤加美神, Kura mitsuha no kami 闇御津羽神, and Kura yamatsumi no kami 闇山津見神, and in the human names Saho no ōkuramitome 沙本之大闇見戸売 (in the section on Emperor Kaika 開化). It also occurs in the section where Amaterasu conceals herself in a rock cave (iwayato 石屋戸), in the sentences “the whole of Takamanohara became dark, and the land of Ashihara was entirely dark” and “I thought that my concealing would as a matter of course bring darkness throughout the heavenly plain and that the land of Ashihara would be entirely dark as well.(48)
Ōtomatoiko no kami 大戸或子神 and Ōtomatoime no kami 大戸或女神  The graph 或 (“a certain,” “or”) is a substitute for 惑 (“bewilder,” “go astray”). Norinaga argues that “fog arising from the earth makes things dark, and thus people lose their way.” The name thus expresses the act of losing one's way because of a fog hanging over the fields.(49) Nakamura Hirotoshi suggests that the lineage of divinities born from the mountain and field deities may represent the turbulent air arising from a dark ravine cloaked in fog.(50) Two other deity names with the element 大戸 occur in the Kojiki: Ōtohiwake no kami 大戸日別神 (see item “Ōtohiwake no kami” above) and Ōhehime no kami 大戸比売神, which appears later in the list of the descendants of Ōtoshi no kami 大年神. The text states of the latter that “this is the hearth (竈) deity worshiped by the multitudes.”(51) As one reading of the graph 竈 is he, the graph to 戸 can be read in this passage as he also.
 The graph 或 occurs twelve times in the Kojiki. Apart from instances where it means “or, either,” in the section on Emperor Keikō it is used with the meaning “to daze,” “to confuse” in the phrase “Then, [the deity of Mount Ibuki] brought about a great ice storm that dazed Yamatotakeru.”(52) Referring to Jiyun 集韻 (a Chinese phonetic dictionary compiled in 1039), Onoda Mitsuo notes that the character 或 could be used as a substitute in pronunciation and meaning for 惑 (“to daze,” “to confuse”). According to him, the use of the character 或 with the sense “to daze” in the earliest extant manuscripts of Kojiki can be seen as preserving the text's original form.(53)
 The text includes a gloss stating that “the character 或 should be read matohi” (訓或云麻刀比下效此). Yamaguchi Yoshinori makes the following observation about this gloss: “A considerable number of examples can be found in the Man'yōshū where the graph 惑 is used to transcribe the words matou or matowasu, suggesting that these were standard readings of this character [and that a gloss would not be required to indicate such a reading]. ... The most reasonable way to understand this gloss is to see it as intended to indicate that the graph should be read in the intransitive form matoi and not the transitive form matowashi. How we ultimately interpret the meaning of this theonym will vary depending on how we interpret the character 戸 that precedes 或, but overall it seems more plausible to think of this deity as an entity that causes humans to be confused rather than one that is itself confused. This circumstance means, however, that there was a substantial risk that people would adopt the transitive reading matowashi. Quite likely it was for this reason that the compilers included a gloss indicating that here 或 should be read as matoi.”(54)
Tori no iwakusufune no kami 鳥之石楠舩神, Ama no torifune 天鳥舩  These divinities represent a deification of ships. Tori no iwakusufune conveys the meaning of a ship (fune) that sails as fast as a bird (tori) and is made of camphor wood (kusu) that is as hard as a rock (iwa). As for the relationship between birds and ships, in antiquity, it is said, people thought of heaven and sea as a continuum and hence associated birds flying in the sky with ships sailing on the sea.
 The passage on the official post station (umaya 駅家) at Akashi 明石 included in an extant section (itsubun 逸文) of a variant of Harima no kuni fudoki 播磨国風土記 describes a ship made of a giant tree and named Hayatori 速鳥 (“fast bird”).(55) The Man'yōshū includes a poetic example of the superimposition of sky and sea in poem 1068: “Waves of clouds rise in the sky sea, and the moon vessel appears to paddle into the forest of stars and disappear” (ame no umi ni / kumo no namitachi / tsuki no fune / hoshi no hayashi ni kogikakuru miyu 天の海に雲の波たち月の船星の林に漕ぎ隠る見ゆ). According to Matsumae Takeshi, just as people worldwide envisioned the sun as being transported by a ship, they conceived the moon also as moving in a vessel.(56)
 The main text of the fifth section of Nihon shoki's Age of the Gods volume states that when Izanaki and Izanami discarded Hiruko, the leech-child, they put him into a boat called Ama no iwakusufune 天磐櫲樟船. Further, the second variant of the same section states that immediately after having borne Hiruko and Susanoo no mikoto, Izanaki and Izanami bore Tori no iwakusufune 鳥磐櫲樟船, a boat in which they put Hiruko.(57) The theonym Ama no torifune 天鳥舩 does not appear in the Nihon shoki. In the Kojiki, when Takemikazuchi no kami 建御雷神 is subsequently dispatched to the land of Ashihara no nakatsukuni 葦原中国, he descends together with Ama no torifune.(58)
Ōgetsuhime no kami 大冝都比売神  The name Ōgetsuhime appeared in the previous section narrating the birth of the land as an alternative name of the land of Awa. That Ōgetsuhime should be considered different from the one named here, but this one should perhaps be identified with another deity of the same name who subsequently appears as a female deity killed by Susanoo in the episode relating the origin of the five cereals (see section 20). Hi no yagihayao no kami 火之夜芸速男神  Yagi 夜芸 perhaps can be understood as the same as yaki 焼き (“to burn”) and haya 速 (“swift”) as a fire's quick blazing momentum. Some commentators such as Nishimiya Kazutami thus take this divinity to be a male deity with a fire's quick blazing power.(59) Ogihara Asao proposes that the sequence “ship-food-fire” seen in this deity name and the previous two (Tori no iwakusufune and Ōgetsuhime) may reflect an association of ideas between foodstuffs (grains and drinking water) being transported in ships and then cooked on fire.(60)
Hi no kakabiko no kami 火之炫古神  This name means “fiery man who shines brightly.” Kaka 炫 conveys “shine brightly.” Today the verb meaning “to shine” is pronounced kagayaku, but until the Muromachi period the pronunciation was kakayaku. In its description of the village called Kaka 加賀 (Shimane 島根 district), the Izumo no kuni fudoki 出雲国風土記 states, “When [the maiden Kisakahime 支佐加比売] shot [an arrow] with a golden bow, a light shone brightly (hikari kakayakinu 光加加明也). Therefore, this is [called the village of] Kaka 加加).”(61) In Ancient Japanese, kaka was also pronounced kaku. This parallelism has led some commentators to argue that the kaku ya 加久矢 arrow that figures in the episode of “the treason of Ame no wakahiko 天の若日子” was a metallic arrow, or that the fruit of the perpetually blooming kaku 迦玖 tree that Emperor Suinin 垂仁 ordered Tajimamori 多遅摩毛理 to bring back from the eternal realm was the fruit of the Tachibana orange (Citrus tachibana), which shines like gold.(62) However, these inferences remain uncertain.
Hi no kagutsuchi no kami 火之迦具土神  Norinaga asserts that kagu 迦具 means kagayaku (“to shine”) and considers kaga, kage, and kagu all to be variants of the same word.(63) Kurano Kenji rejects Norinaga's view, noting that such an amalgamation would result in this deity name having the same meaning as the preceding Hi no kakabiko no kami, and that ancient texts contain no examples of the word kagu being used with the meaning kagayaku (“to shine”). Addressing the implications of the element kaguya in the name Kaguyahime カグヤ姫 (the heroine of the early Heian-period Taketori monogatari), he suggests that kagu here does not mean kagayaku but kanbashii 芳しい (“sweet-smelling”). He postulates that the kagu of the name Kagutsuchi carries this same meaning.(64) Nishimiya Kazutami takes the words kaga, kagi, kagu, and kage as meaning “a light (fire) that flickers (burns) dimly.” Since in the name Hi no kagutsuchi the element hi no 火之 (“a fire's”) precedes kagu, Nishimiya interprets it to mean “a fire that burns with a flickering light.” He holds that Hi no kakabiko can be distinguished from Hi no kagutsuchi in that the former conveys the spiritual power of illumination, whereas the latter conveys the power to burn.(65)

Endnotes
(1) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.204. For Koto takenoo, see Kojima et al., Nihon shoki, SNKBZ 2, pp.56–57n12. The editors read the name as Koto sakanoo.
(2) Nishimiya, Kojiki, pp.32n5, 332.
(3) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.333.
(4) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, p.38n13.
(5) See Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.79–81.
(6) Taniguchi, “Ki no kuni no Ōyabiko no kami,” pp.53–58.
(7) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, pp.171–72.
(8) Saigō, Kojiki chūshaku, vol.1, p.135.
(9) Nishimiya, Kojiki, pp.32n5, 332.
(10) Kōnoshi and Yamaguchi, Kojiki chūkai, vol.2, pp.143–45. They hold that mo here should be read as a -type syllable according to the ancient phonological distinctions, that is to say, as mo, not .
(11) See Arashi, “‘Kun un’ ni tsuite no ikkōsatsu,” pp.24–34.
(12) Saijō, Kojiki no mojihō, pp.22–26.
(13) This occurs in the section on Emperor Jinmu; see Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.144–45.
(14) According to Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, the description hayasui no to, which occurs in the section on Emperor Jinmu, refers to the Akashi strait 明石海峡, between the islands of Honshu and Awaji. Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, p.142n7.
(15) Kanda and Ōta, Kojiki, vol.1, p.183n10.
(16) Nakajima, Kojiki hyōshaku, p.42.
(17) Watarai Nobuyoshi, Kojiki, vol.1, fol.5b.
(18) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.208.
(19) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.33n11.
(20) Kōnoshi and Yamaguchi, Kojiki chūkai, vol.2, pp.146–47.
(21) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.335.
(22) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, pp.209–10.
(23) Volumes 9 and 10 of the tenth-century Engi shiki (Procedures of the Engi Era) consist of a comprehensive list of shrines throughout the country (TN).
(24) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.210.
(25) Yamada, Kojiki jōkan kōgi, pp.279–82.
(26) Saigō, Kojiki chūshaku, vol.1, p.139.
(27) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.336.
(28) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, pp.210–11.
(29) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, p.178.
(30) Nakamura, Shinpan Kojiki, p.29n6.
(31) As in the episode in which a favorable wind blows when Empress Jingū traverses the sea towards the country of Silla. Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.246–47.
(32) As in the episode where the wind carries the wails of Ame no wakahiko's widow to the heavens. Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.102–103.
(33) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.211.
(34) Sakamoto, Ienaga et al., Nihon shoki, NKBT 67, p.86n2.
(35) Saigō, Kojiki chūshaku, vol.1, p.140.
(36) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, p.179. Azuma uta are held to reflect the popular language of the eastern regions and include many colloquial words that differ from the language associated with the Yamato region (TN).
(37) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, p.180.
(38) Kojima et al., Nihon shoki, SNKBZ 2, pp.34–35.
(39) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.213.
(40) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, pp.213–14.
(41) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, p.182.
(42) Yamada, Kojiki jōkan kōgi, pp.298–99.
(43) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.92–93.
(44) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.58–59.
(45) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.214.
(46) Ogihara, Kojiki, Jōdai kayō, NKBZ 1, p.59n18.
(47) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, pp.182–83.
(48) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.62–63, 66–67.
(49) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.214.
(50) Nakamura, Shinpan Kojiki, p.29n10.
(51) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.96–97.
(52) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.230–31.
(53) Onoda, Kojiki, p.70.
(54) Kōnoshi and Yamaguchi, Kojiki chūkai, vol.2, p.148.
(55) Uegaki, Fudoki, SNKBZ 5, p.492.
(56) Matsumae, Nihon shinwa no shin kenkyū, pp.57–75.
(57) Kojima et al., Nihon shoki, SNKBZ 2, pp.36–37, 38–39.
(58) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.106–107.
(59) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.340.
(60) Ogihara, Kojiki, Jōdai kayō, NKBZ 1, p.59n22.
(61) Uegaki, Fudoki, SNKBZ 5, pp.162–63.
(62) Yamaguchi and Kōnoshi, Kojiki, SNKBZ 1, pp.102–103, 210–11.
(63) Motoori Norinaga, Kojiki den, MNZ 9, p.217.
(64) Kurano, Kojiki zenchūshaku, vol.2, pp.185–88.
(65) Nishimiya, Kojiki, p.341.

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